DEFORM for Heat Treatment & Microstructure

DEFORM® predicts thermal, mechanical and metallurgical responses of parts during forming and heat treatment, including phase transformation and recrystallisation. Distortion, quench cracking and residual stresses can be predicted, together with phase volume fractions.


Typical heat treatment processes include:

  • Normalising
  • Austenising
  • Carburising
  • Solution treatments
  • Quenching
  • Tempering
  • Aging
  • Stress relieving

Heat treatment and microstructure simulation is available in the standalone DEFORM-HT system and as add-on module for DEFORM-2D and 3D forming software.  Combining forming and HT capabilities enables the modelling and optimisation of cogging and other thermo-mechanical processes to develop homogenized, fine grained, recrystallized microstructures. 

Heating processes can be optimised through batch furnace and induction heating solvers, where coil design, applied power and induction frequency may be varied. Microstructure evolution capabilities include both JMAK and CA (cellular automata) models to account for dynamic recrystallization, static recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization and grain growth. 

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