DEFORM for Metal Forming

DEFORM can simulate forging, extrusion, rolling, drawing, spinning and any other hot, warm or cold manufacturing process involving large deformation. Results such as material strain and ductile fracture,  die under or over fill, forming defects, press loads and tooling stresses are used to develop superior products and manufacturing processes.


DEFORM has been applied to hot and cold forging, extrusion and upsetting operations since 1980s, optimising the manufacture of products such as:

  • Turbine disks
  • Flanges and valve bodies
  • Upset tubes and shafts
  • Gears
  • Crankshafts, connecting rods and pistons
  • Control arms, tracks and yokes
  • Bearings
  • Medical implants
  • Fasteners

Sheet metal processes can be evaluated for splits, wrinkles, forming  loads, tool failure and springback. Applications include:

  • Drawing
  • Deep drawing
  • Bending
  • Stamping
  • Coining
  • Blanking
  • Ironing
  • Pipe/tube forming
  • Sheet forging
  • Rubber pad forming
  • Hydroforming
  • Stretch forming
  • Mechanical joining
  • Roll forming
  • Flowforming

Standard rolling applications include cross wedge rolling, shape rolling, orbital forming and thread rolling. DEFORM can be used to optimise the rolled shape in the blocker or finished forging dies, typically resulting in a much higher material yield than traditional preforms. 

A specialised solver has been developed for ring rolling, spinning and other rotary forming applications to obtain accurate solutions within practical run-times. 

DEFORM can model the initiation and propagation of cracks due to ductile fracture. Punch-die clearances can be optimised for minimum roll-over and burr formation, while maintaining low forming loads. 

Premature tool failures resulting from high forming pressures, inadequate die design or unbalanced interference fits can be analysed and eliminated using the coupled  die stress analysis capability.

Coupled Forming and Multiple Die Stress Analysis



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